Posts tagged knee pain
Which Running Gait Mechanics Predict Knee Injury?
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With access to miles of paths and acres of open space running remains one of the most popular outdoor activities in Boulder. Despite its’ accessibility, low cost of participation, and health benefits running related injuries keep many from training or competing at their preferred levels. One recent area of research has focused on gait retraining by Physical Therapists to reduce forces among runners. Although an “ideal” running gait does not exist some factors including foot strike, impact forces, vertical translation can help us differentiate injured from non injured runners or determine who is at a greater risk of injury. A recent study determined additional factors which can help identify injured runners.

Dingenen and colleagues in the journal Physical Therapy in Sport analyzed the running gait of 42 recreational runners (2019). About half of the participants currently experienced pain on the front or side of their knee. Researchers assessed their lower quarter mechanics to determine how those with knee injuries differed from their non injured peers. Researchers found the injured runners demonstrated greater degrees of opposite sided pelvic drop and knee adduction (inward movement) during their running analysis. We often find these running gait impairments in runners with hip abductor (glut) weakness. Increased inward motion or “wag” of the knee in stance increases forces across the knee joint. Conversely, a level pelvis and stable knee helps dissipate the forces of running over a greater surface area in the joints.

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PRP Effects On Tendon Injury Attributed To Post Injection Physical Therapy
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Patellar tendinopathy is one of the more common sports medicine conditions seen in our Boulder Physical Therapy clinic. This condition causes increased pain along the front of the knee just beneath the knee cap and leads to pain with jumping, running, and squatting activities. Current medical evidence has described an absence of inflammatory cells and instead we find an increase in cells responsible for tendon repair. These immature cells are initially laid down in a disorganized pattern and require progressive, optimal loading through exercise to reach a mature, healthy state. In addition to exercise some physicians have advocated for PRP injections into the injured tendon in an effort to accelerate the healing process, but well constructed research trials have not been conducted and this treatment is still considered experimental. A recent research trial examined the effectiveness of PRP for patellar tendinopathy.

A well done randomized controlled trial in the American Journal of Sports Medicine examined the effectiveness of PRP vs. placebo (saline) in patients with patellar tendinopathy (> 6 months of symptoms) (Scott et al. 2019). Patients were randomized to one of three injection groups under ultrasound guidance leukocyte rich PRP, leukocyte poor PRP, and saline. Each group then received 6 weeks (3 times per week) of supervised Physical Therapy including heavy slow strength training (concentric and eccentric loading). Patients were folllowed up at 6,12,36, and 52 weeks. Authors found an improvement in all three groups but no difference in pain, function, or recovery between the three groups. If PRP added to the recovery we should have seen a superior effect of PRP and PT vs. saline and PT, but because all groups were similar we can attribute this change in function to the Physical Therapy strengthening program. This evidence supports our current view on the limited benefits of injections for tendon pain. Patients are encouraged to use a Physical Therapy exercise program consisting of progress, loading exercises to accelerate their recovery from tendon injury.

Strengthening Exercises For Patellofemoral Pain
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Patellofemoral pain, or pain around the kneecap, is one of the most common types of knee pain we treat at MEND. It impacts up to 23% of the general population and 40% of those people have persistent symptoms that can last for years! Exercise programs targeting the hip and the knee have been proven effective in managing hip and knee pain.  Most of the exercise programs studied to date have either not provided sufficient exercise progression to improve strength and power or have not been extended long enough to sustain gains in strength or power (which may result in recurrence of symptoms).

 A recent study (Barton et al 2019) reported significant improvements in patellofemoral pain, function and hip muscle capacity with a 12-week progressive strengthening program that can easily be performed at the gym. The key differentiator of this study was that the exercises were progressive – either the challenge of the exercise increased (ie: 2-leg squat to 1-leg squat) or the resistance of the exercise was progressed to ensure participants stayed in a perceived exertion range of 7-9 (which typically means you are only able to perform 1-2 reps in your set).

The exercises included in this study were:

1.     Bridging – 3 sets of 12 repetitions

Double to Single leg

2.     Hip abduction - 3 sets of 12 repetitions

a.     Sidelying to Standing Progression

3.     Plank progressions 3 x 60 sec

a.     Front and Side Planks

4.     Optional quad exercises including squats and single leg squats.

5.     Hamstring Strengthening including body weight and machine.

Authors concluded the 12 week progressive resistance training program was safe and effective for improving pain and function in patients with patellofemoral pain. Stay tuned to our social media for an exercise videos.

Click Here To Learn More On Which Exercises Are Appropriate For Your Knee Symptoms

Rupture Of Knee Tendon After PRP Treatment
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Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is becoming a popular treatment for muscle strains, arthritis/cartilage injuries, and tendinopathies, but the evidence behind its’ use is limited. Specifically there is a lack of large human trials with randomization to both placebo injections and alternative treatments. Consistent with alternative treatments PRP’s clinical utilization is outpacing the evidence leaving many more questions than answers. To date there is insufficient research to advocate for injections into injured tendons and in some cases (corticosteroid) authors have argued the risks outweigh the benefits. A recent research article highlights a risk of PRP.

A case report published in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine highlights a risk on the utilization of PRP for sports injuries (Redler et al. 2018). Authors describe a single patient with a degenerative patellar tendinopathy treated with a series of 4 PRP injections. Upon subsequent surgical examination authors reported a complete rupture in the patellar tendon with significant degeneration is the surrounding tendon. Although the results of this report must be taken in consideration due to its’ methodology, including a single patient, the authors state this report questions both the effectiveness and safety of using this injection in patients with severe tendinopathy.

Which Muscle's Weakness Predicts Future Knee Pain?
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Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, pain under the knee cap, is the most common diagnosis of knee pain affecting both sedentary and active individuals. Muscle weakness in the hip and knee are often present in individuals with this diagnosis, but a cause and effect relationship between strength and knee pain has been difficult to established. In short, the research is divided on this relationship especially within the variable of hip weakness. Thus questions remain on which muscle imbalances may predispose an otherwise pain free individual for future patellofemoral pain.

A recent systematic review of the available evidence on the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome reviewed 18 studies of 4818 research participants (Neal et al. Br J Sp Med. 2019). Authors found three common groups of research subjects including military recruits, adolescents, and runners. They reported moderate to strong evidence body mass index, age, and leg alignment were not predictive of future knee pain. Interestingly, although common in clinical patients, moderate evidence reported hip weakness was not predictive of future knee pain. Authors reported quadricep weakness, especially among military recruits, was associated with future onset of knee pain.

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Which Muscles Should I Strengthen For Knee Arthritis
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Knee osteoarthritis is a common and increasing diagnosis that is contributing to an rapid rise in total knee arthroplasty surgery in the United States. Knee Osteoarthritis leads to disability in greater than 10% of those over 55 years, however manual therapy and exercise has shown to be twice as successful compared to a home exercise program in short term pain and function. More importantly, research has shown this Physical Therapy approach can postpone or prevent the need for knee replacement. One of most common complaints from patients with knee arthritis is pain with walking or ascending/descending stairs. Weakness of the quadriceps, hip adductors (inner thigh) and abductors (outer hip) are crucial to improving stair climbing and squatting ability.

A recent study (Hislop et al. 2019. Br J Sports Med) aimed to find the benefit of adding hip strengthening exercises to quad strengthening exercises among people with Knee Osteoarthritis. Authors randomized participants with knee arthritis into one of two groups: knee strengthening or knee and hip strengthening. Consistent with clinical practice, the authors found a decrease in patient related pain as well as improvements in patient function in patients who combined hip and knee strengthening exercises compared to knee strengthening exercises alone.

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